Terminology used in this Atlas is explained below. The reader is also referred to the Dictionary of the Fungi (Hawksworth et al., 1995). For descriptive terms in morphology, the Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology (Ulloa & Hanlin, 2000) is recommended. Diagram of used shape terminology
Glossary – S
saprobe – fungus feeding by dead organic matter.
sapronosis – human epidemic with an origin in plant material.
sarcina (plural: sarcinae) – swollen, meristematic clump of cells.
sarcinae – plural of sarcina, -swollen, meristematic clump of cells.
sarcinic – thallic conidiogenesis by meristematic swelling of cells which become transversely and longitudinally septate and are liberated when a particular size is attained.
saturnshaped – spherical with equatorial thickening.
schizolytic – liberation of adjacent cells by fission of the septum.
sclerotial body – small sclerotium.
sclerotium – large, multicellular clump of cells which does not produce any spores or conidia.
secondary conidiophore – conidiophore produced as a longitudinal extension of a conidium.
secondary cutaneous mycosis – deep infection disseminating to skin and leading to cutaneous eruptions.
seizure – violent involuntary contraction of skeletal muscles that determines irregular movements because abnormal electrical activity in the brain, involving one or more muscles groups or generalized throughout the body.
sessile – sitting directly on supporting structure, without stalk or denticle.
seta (plural: setae) – large, spinelike outgrowth.
setae – plural of seta, large, spine-like outgrowth.
single – not in chains or groups, produced with only one, terminally on a conidiophore.
sinusitis – inflammation of the lining of the facial sinuses.
solitary – alone, only a single conidium being formed per conidiogenous cell.
spathulate – spoonshaped, with inflated apical part.
species complex – group of members of a single clade which are different at the molecular epidemiological level but are functionally indistinguishable.
spherical – circular in outline.
spherule – endoconidiumforming cell of Coccidioides immites formed in host.
spicula – curved outgrowth of hypha in filamentous basidiomycetes.
spindleshaped – fusiform, swollen near the middle, strongly narrowed towards both ends.
spinose – ornamented with rather large needles, like a hedgehog.
spinulose – ornamented with small needles.
sporangia – plural of sporangium, specialized organ in Mucorales producing asexual spores by cleavage.
sporangiole – sporangium of Mucorales containing one or very few spores only.
sporangiophore – stalk bearing sporangium.
sporangiospore – spore produced from sporangium.
sporangium (plural: sporangia) – specialized organ in Mucorales producing asexual spores by cleavage.
spore – general term for a reproductive propagule in fungi; in higher fungi it is meiotic (in contrast to conidium).
sporodochia – plural of sporodochium, cushion-like, densely aggregated group of conidiophores.
sporodochium (plural: sporodochia) – cushionlike, densely aggregated group of conidiophores.
sporophore – stalk bearing spore in Zygomycota.
sporophore – specialized stalk in Entomophthorales producing a single spore.
stellate – starshaped.
sterigma (plural: sterigmata) – slender, spinelike outgrowth of cell bearing a conidium.
sterigmata – plural of sterigma, slender, spine-like outgrowth of cell bearing a conidium.
sterigmatoconidia – plural of sterigmatoconidium, -conidium borne on spine-like outgrowth, not forcibly discharged.
sterigmatoconidium (plural: sterigmatoconidia) – conidium borne on spinelike outgrowth, not forcibly discharged.
stipe – conidiophore bearing vesicle in Aspergillus.
stipitate – elevated, with a small stalk.
stolon – creeping and locally rooting branch, bearing sporangiophores.
striate – ornamented with parallel stripes.
stringbeanshaped – linear and flexuose, sometimes with very narrow ends.
stroma – large, irregular mass of vegetative hyphae.
stylospore – stalked chlamydospore of Mucorales.
subcutaneous mycosis – fungal growth in subcutaneous tissue.
submerged – below the surface of the growth medium.
subspherical – nearly spherical in shape.
subulate – gradually becoming narrower towards the apex.
superficial mycosis – growth of fungus on mammal host without breaking any line of host defence.
suspensor – hyphal element supporting a zygospore.
sympodial – continued, successive apical growth, each subsequent point of growth next to the previous one and terminating at a somewhat higher level.
synanamorph – one of the asexual forms of propagation of a fungus which forms several kinds of conidia.
synchronous – blastic conidium formation in which all conidium initials on a cell grow out at the same time.
synnema – bundle of conidiophores sporulating in the apical part.
systemic mycosis – localized fungal growth in deep organ tissue.