Terminology used in this Atlas is explained below. The reader is also referred to the Dictionary of the Fungi (Hawksworth et al., 1995). For descriptive terms in morphology, the Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology (Ulloa & Hanlin, 2000) is recommended. Diagram of used shape terminology
Glossary – A
abscess – defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent spread of microorganisms, consisting of pus accumulated in a cavity.
acerose – rocketshaped, slender, with somewhat swollen base and acute apex ); syn.: lanceolate.
acervuli – plural of acervulus, saucer-shaped conidial fruit body, conidiogenous cells being inserted on a pseudoparenchyma.
acervulus (plural: acervuli) – saucershaped conidial fruit body, conidiogenous cells being inserted on a pseudoparenchyma.
acicular – slender, gradually becoming narrower towards the apex).
acladium – sessile microconidia alongside undifferentiated hyphae.
acropetal – chain of conidia growing at the tip.
aculeate – bearing narrow spines.
adaptation – acquiring factors to live in a particular environment in the course of evolution.
adiaspore – thickwalled fungal chlamydosporelike cell of Emmonsia species in human tissue.
adrenal insufficiency – condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, leading to main symptoms: hypoglycemia, dehydration, weight loss, disorientation, weakness, tiredness, dizziness, low blood pressure, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
adventitious sporulation – formation of morphologically differentiated reproductive structures inside host tissue.
aggregated – in compact clusters.
allantoid – slightly curved with rounded ends; sausageshaped.
allochtonous – living on the mammal host because of availability of an essential factor, but actually having its niche elsewhere.
alpha conidia – ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia in Coelomycetes with dimorphic conidia.
altered mental status – level of consciousness of a person’s arousability and responsiveness to stimuli from the environment: lethargy, obtunded, stupor and coma.
amplitude – (ecological) range of conditions tolerated.
ampulliform – urnshaped; spherical with short neck.
amyloid – producing starchlike compounds, staining blue with Melzer’s iodine.
anamorph – asexual form of sporulation.
angular – with several blunt edges.
annellated zone – pronounced part of the cell which comprises a series of scars having arisen by repetitive conidiogenesis through the previous scar.
annellidic – repetitive formation of conidia through a single scar, each subsequent scar being formed at a slightly or markedly higher level.
antheridia – plural of antheridium, -male copulating cell.
antheridium (plural: antheridia) – male copulating cell.
antlerlike hypha (plural: antlerlike hyphae) – (sub)erect hypha with swollen, blunt dichotomous lobes at the apex.
antler-like hyphae – plural of antler-like hypha, -(sub)erect hypha with swollen, blunt dichotomous lobes at the apex.
apophysis – inflation of sporangiophore columella extending just below sporangium in Mucorales.
appressoria – plural of appressorium, irregularly shaped attachment structure.
appressorium (plural: appressoria) – irregularly shaped attachment structure.
arachnoid – cobweblike.
arborescent – treeshaped (bundles of hyphae).
arthric – thallic conidiogenesis by which a hyphal element is fragmented into conidia after transverse septation.
arthritis – group of conditions involving damage and swelling of joints.
arthroconidia – plural of arthroconidium, conidium derived form a specialized hypha that has fallen apart into separate cells.
arthroconidium (plural: arthroconidia) – conidium derived form a specialized hypha that has fallen apart into separate cells.
ascending – partly creeping with terminal part suberect.
asci – plural of ascus, cell in which ascospores are produced after karyogamy and meiosis.
ascogonium – female sex organ of Ascomycota.
ascoma – fruit body containing asci.
ascospore – sexually produced spore in ascus.
ascostroma – stroma in which cavities are formed containing asci.
ascus (plural: asci) – cell in which ascospores are produced after karyogamy and meiosis.
assimilation – degradation of compounds for feeding.
asteroid body – fungal cell in human tissue on which antibodies have been precipitated, forming a starshaped perimeter.
atrophy – partial or complete reduction of volume and weight of an organ, caused by poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, lack of exercise or diseases intrinsic to the tissue itself.
attenuated – narrowed towards the tip.
autochthonous – having its natural niche on the mammal body.
avellaneous – pale brown, hazelnut brown.
azygospore – zygospore on which one of the suspensors is lacking or shrivels in an early state of development.